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Delay is an audio effect which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, and then plays it back after a period of time. The delayed signal may either be played back multiple times, or played back into the recording again, to create the sound of a repeating, decaying echo.

Delay chorus echo slapback slap feedback dB mixing sound audio studio

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This is a guideline. In actual practice these numbers will vary depending upon the sound being delayed, the context of the delay effect, the make of the delay, etc.

Phasing – very short delay time (.1 –  2.0 ms), low rate/full depth, sine waveform, feedback.  Simulates flanging w/EQ by sweeping a steep notch through program; for most purposes synonymous w/ flanging, but a slightly “tighter’ sound.

Flanging – short delay ( 1 – 10 ms ), low rate / full depth, sine waveform, feedback; try Lo/Hi filter on Feedback (allows greater amount of feedback before overload occurs), try Inverted phase on Delay (“negative flange”)  and/or Feedback; 50/50 mix either in device or on board

Chorus – longer delay ( up to 30 ms ), faster rate, much lower depth or will get too much pitch change; w/ or w/out feedback

At 35 + ms you start to feel a sense of space.

Doubling – ( 25 – 50 ms ), no feedback, some modulation for thickening

Echoes – ( 50 ms + ), feedback if desired for repeats

At 85 + ms you start to hear a distinct echo on many sounds.

Slap-back - moderate delay ( 85 – 130 ms ), no modulation, w/ or w/out feedback.

I hope these guidelines are helpful to your daily mixing schedule as they are to mines. Remember, practice always makes perfect and don’t let the numbers and strange words confuse you. It is straightforward.

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Jamie Bethell

Sound Engineer


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